2006 Honda Civic Press Information

An Extreme Transformation of Design and Dynamics

8/31/2005 6:34:23 PM

Civic Si Powertrain: 2.0-Liter / 6MT

  • 2.0-liter i-VTEC DOHC 4-Cylinder Engine with Variable Timing Control (VTC)
  • 6-Speed Manual Transmission
  • Helical-Type Limited Slip Differential

High revving power, quick shifting precision and tenacious grip describe the Civic Si powertrain. The 16-valve 2.0-liter engine uses Honda's i-VTEC "intelligent" valve control system that combines Variable Timing Control (VTC) to continuously adjust camshaft phase with Variable Valve Timing and Lift Electronic Control (VTEC) that adjusts valve lift, timing and duration. Combining these two systems results in impressive horsepower and high torque with good fuel economy and low exhaust emissions. The Civic Si utilizes VTEC and VTC for both intake and exhaust valve control to produce 197 horsepower (2) at 7800 rpm and 139 lb-ft. of torque (2) at 6200 rpm. The air intake system and the exhaust system are tuned to provide a deep sound and resonance, adding a level of performance feedback more commonly found on racecars. Further refinement is found in the drive-by-wire throttle body for smooth acceleration response and a chain driven balancer unit in the oil pan minimizes engine vibration.

The Civic Si is available exclusively with a 6-speed manual transmission. Designed to be exceptionally compact and lightweight, this 6-speed has also been engineered to shift with extremely short and precise throws. A final drive ratio of 4.76:1 promotes aggressive acceleration while a tall 6th gear provides for relaxed highway cruising. The short-throw clutch has an innovative torsion mechanism that considerably reduces noise. Multiple synchronizers are utilized, and 5th and 6th gears feature single carbon synchronizers for a direct shift feel.

Most vehicles have open differentials that send power to usually just one wheel in a corner, resulting in wheel spin and less potential for applying throttle and acquiring faster acceleration. The helical type limited slip differential (LSD) in the Civic Si improves acceleration and cornering performance by insuring that both front wheels receive an optimum level of torque at all times. In a straight line, both wheels are better utilized to put the engine's power to the ground with minimal wheel spin. During hard cornering, the LSD transmits more torque toward the outside wheel to bias more power to the tire with the most grip and facilitates the outside wheel's longer travel distance relative to the inner wheel. Primary benefits include the ability to accelerate harder exiting corners and enhances the vehicle's responsiveness to throttle inputs in corners.

(2) Horsepower and torque calculations reflect new SAE J1349 procedures revised August, 2004.

Civic Hybrid Powertrain: 1.3-Liter/ IMA / CVT

  • 1.3-liter i-VTEC Engine with Variable Cylinder Management and i-DSI
  • Fourth Generation Integrated Motor Assist (IMA) System
  • Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT)
  • Cooperative Regenerative Braking System

Honda was the first vehicle manufacturer to offer a gasoline-electric hybrid powertrain in North America with the introduction of the Honda Insight in December 1999. Improved versions of the IMA system have appeared in the 2003 Civic Hybrid and the 2005 Accord Hybrid. Adding to its long history of advanced green technologies, Honda's fourth generation hybrid powertrain in the 2006 Civic Hybrid offers improved power, efficiency and capabilities. Horsepower increases by 18 percent and combined fuel economy increases by about 5 percent, versus a similarly equipped 2005 Civic Hybrid.

Honda's industry leading reputation for extracting power and fuel economy from its gasoline engines explains its unique approach to electric hybridization. First, Honda can build a small engine with exceptionally high power output and high efficiency as the foundation for the hybrid powertrain. This integrates well with Honda's simple, elegant, and efficient IMA system that eliminates the need for a large, heavy and complex electric drive system. Second, Honda's hybrid performance strategy lends itself well to the driving habits of North American consumers who tend to live in suburban settings and have commutes that include mixed highway and city driving by delivering similarly high economy levels for both driving modes.

Some hybrid systems built by other manufacturers actually provide higher city fuel economy than highway - a feature that benefits only those who live in dense urban areas with heavy stop and go traffic. City drivers also tend to put fewer annual miles on their vehicle, which minimizes the return on investment for a hybrid powertrain. Overall, Honda's advanced IMA system provides the greatest advantage to high mileage commuters, who can benefit the most from clean and efficient hybrid technology.

The fourth generation Honda IMA system consists of a 1.3-liter i-VTEC 4-cylinder engine connected to a high power electric motor and a Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT). A battery pack is used to capture and store electricity for the electric motor. Like all contemporary hybrid powertrains, the system uses a gasoline engine as the primary source of power and an electric motor provides additional power and electricity regeneration capability. During acceleration, the engine or the engine and electric motor propel the vehicle.

During cruising, the gasoline engine and/or the electric motor can propel the vehicle. This means the Civic Hybrid can drive on the electric motor alone in certain cruising situations, a new capability for 2006. During braking, the gasoline engine deactivates and the electric motor acts as generator to charge the battery pack. At a stop, the engine can enter an idle stop mode to save fuel, and the engine is turned off until the brake pedal is released.

Overall, the 18 percent more powerful 110-horsepower fourth generation Honda IMA powertrain provides stronger starting and overtaking acceleration compared to its predecessor while its estimated city/highway fuel economy of 50/50 mpg provides a maximum driving range over 615 miles. The gasoline engine and electric motor combine to produce a maximum output of 110-horsepower (2) @ 6000 rpm and 123 lb-ft. of torque11 @ 1000-2500 rpm.

(2) Horsepower and torque calculations reflect new SAE J1349 procedures revised August, 2004.

Building on the strong foundation of the 2005 Civic Hybrid 1.3-liter i-DSI gasoline engine, the 2006 1.3-liter i-VTEC with VCM gasoline engine implements a wide assortment of new technology including a three-stage i-VTEC system that provides a low and high cam profile to increase power output while also adding Variable Cylinder Management (VCM) capability to deactivate all four of the engine's cylinders (instead of three previously). The new valvetrain helps to drastically reduce internal pumping losses during deceleration and contributes to the increase in electrical regeneration of 170 percent. The engine still features an "intelligent" dual and sequential ignition system that uses two spark plugs per cylinder and allows for more complete combustion of the fuel by firing the two spark plugs either at the same time or in a sequential, one-two fashion depending on the driving condition. By itself, gasoline engine output is rated at 93 horsepower @ 6000 rpm (+ 9 percent) and torque is rated at 89 lb-ft. @ 4500 rpm (+2 percent).

Dramatic new technology has also been added to the electric motor, Intelligent Power Unit and battery pack to improve performance, reduce size and minimize weight. The 15-kilowatt electric motor uses a high performance magnet and flat wire construction to improve torque output by 30 percent, horsepower by 46 percent and efficiency by 3 percent. By itself, the electric motor is rated at 20 horsepower @ 2000 rpm and torque is rated at 76 lb-ft. @ 0-1160 rpm. The brain of the IMA system - the Intelligent Power Unity (IPU) - is 13 percent smaller and weighs slightly less. Related components including the Power Control Unit (PCU) and DC/DC converter are also smaller and weigh less while providing greater operational capabilities. The 158-volt battery pack provides 27 percent more assist power, can recharge 14 percent faster and its size has been reduced by 12 percent.

A Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) is standard equipment on all Civic Hybrids. The newly designed transmission provides a wider range between the maximum and minimum gear ratios to enhance acceleration and minimize engine rpm at high speeds. The transmission provides smooth and predictable transitions and helps keep the IMA system operating at its peak efficiency.

A hybrid dual scroll air conditioning compressor that is both engine and internal electric motor-driven helps minimize the air conditioner's impact on fuel economy and allows the Civic Hybrid's automatic climate control system to operate even when the engine is in idle stop mode.

A cooperative regenerative braking system has been added that intelligently directs braking power between the hydraulic brakes and the electric motor (which acts as a generator to provide significant resistance for braking). Less reliance on the traditional braking system and reduced engine pumping losses translate into greater electrical regeneration (170 percent more than the 2005 Civic Hybrid) and ultimately improved fuel economy. When braking, a brake pedal sensor sends a signal to the vehicle's IMA computer (IPU). The computer activates a servo unit in the brake system's master cylinder that smoothly proportions braking power between the traditional hydraulic brakes and the electric motor to maximize regeneration. Previous versions of Honda's IMA systems proportioned braking power at a pre-set rate below the maximum regeneration threshold and with no variable proportioning.

Civic Sedan and Civic Coupe Powertrain: 1.8-Liter / 5MT / 5AT

  • 1.8-liter i-VTEC 4-cylinder engine
  • 5-Speed Manual Transmission
  • Electronically-Controlled 5-Speed Automatic Transmission

The Civic Sedan and Civic Coupe benefit from a new generation of Honda engine technology that provides performance similar to a 2.0-liter engine and fuel economy similar to a 1.5-liter engine. The all-new 1.8-liter i-VTEC 4-cylinder engine produces 140 horsepower @ 6300 rpm and 128 lb-ft. of torque at 4300 rpm with an estimated EPA city/highway fuel economy of 30/40 miles per gallon. The new engine offers significantly improved low rpm torque and top end power. A new 5-speed automatic transmission (available) extracts this extra power to its fullest potential. Additional new Civic technology includes a drive-by-wire throttle control and a dual-stage air intake.

The Civic's 1.8-liter i-VTEC engine minimizes pumping losses during cruising and low engine load situations, an important factor in creating more efficient engines. Pumping losses are reduced when the variable valve timing allows an intake valve to remain open for a brief time period as the piston begins its compression stroke. By keeping an intake valve open during part of the compression stroke, some of the volume of unburned air/fuel mixture in the cylinder moves back inside the intake manifold and lowers the volume being compressed, or "pumped."

During cruising or other stable, low-load driving conditions, the new engine utilizes a dedicated set of cams to close one of the intake valves and retard that valve's timing, exerting backpressure on the air-fuel mixture. This reduces the actual intake air volume. Meanwhile, the throttle is opened wider to provide optimum control over engine output. Opening the throttle valve wider, in other words, widening the path that the air flows through - reduces pumping losses to result in a significant improvement in engine efficiency.

The pumping loss reduction yields fuel economy similar to an engine with a displacement of a 1.5-liter engine. The ability to reduce pumping losses during low engine loads allows for more aggressive tuning of the engine during high loads such as when accelerating. During high load situations, the VTEC system provides high output valve timing for maximum power. Gone is the normal valve timing, replaced by two fundamentally greater extremes. A dual-stage air intake, a lightweight powertrain and optimized gearing further add to the performance character of the vehicle.

Whereas traditional VTEC operation changes valve opening duration based on higher oil pressure during high rpm operation at one side of the valvetrain's rocker arms, the Civic's i-VTEC system can switch valve timing duration at low rpm and low oil pressure using two hydraulic actuators on both sides of the intake rocker arm. This engagement method is similar to that used on the Accord Hybrid and Odyssey i-VTEC systems.

This Civic's i-VTEC valve timing reacts to driving conditions related to throttle opening, vehicle speed, engine rpm and gear selection. A sophisticated drive-by-wire throttle control, air flow meter and dual-stage air intake allow the Engine Control Unit (ECU) to create seamless transitions between the two modes of engine operation.

The Civic Sedan and Civic Coupe are available with either a 5-speed manual transmission (standard) or an electronically controlled 5-speed automatic transmission (available). The 5-speed automatic transmission - among the first in the entry level compact class - is all new for 2006 and improves on the previous 4-speed automatic design with a wider overall ratio that maximizes acceleration in gears one through four and optimizes fuel economy in its overdrive fifth gear. The computer controlled "direct control" transmission provides amazingly smooth shifts. The direct control, along with gear ratios closely matched to the output curve of the engine, help to deliver more power at just the right time to provide overall vehicle performance competitive to vehicles with 4-speed automatic transmissions, yet more horsepower.

The 5-speed manual transmission has also been redesigned into a more lightweight and compact unit that minimizes power-robbing rotating mass and adds a rotating select link for quick and direct gear changes. Additional features include a low friction design with single cone synchronizers in all gears and high capacity bearings throughout. From a performance standpoint, the new manual transmission has a higher torque capacity and a shorter, firmer and more direct shift feel.

Advanced Personal Compact Styling

The 2006 Civic is available as either a sedan (Civic Hybrid, Civic Sedan) or a coupe (Civic Si, Civic Coupe). All models follow the "Advanced Personal Compact" design theme that incorporates a sweeping roofline and ultra-fast windshield rake that highlights the vehicle's advanced one-motion profile, low and wide stance, and superior aerodynamic performance. The sedan and coupe each have 100 percent unique sheetmetal and unique proportions such as wheelbase, height and windshield angle. Wheel openings on both minimize the gap between the tire and the body to some of the lowest levels in the industry of just 1.9 inches front and 1.7 inches rear (a reduction of 0.7 inches front and 1.2 inches rear, respective to the 2005 Civic Sedan).

As the performance leader for the lineup, the Civic Si conveys an aggressive attitude that speaks to the performance potential underneath that also carries over into the Civic Coupe. The steeply raked windshield creates a 21.9-degree angle that is even sleeker than the 23.9 degree rake in the Acura NSX supercar. The long trunk deck, with its frontward sloping bumper, accents the forward motion conveyed by the overall vehicle shape. A trapezoidal lower body with short front and rear overhangs further convey a powerful stance.

The Civic Hybrid styling sets the direction for the Civic Sedan with a technologically sophisticated and refined presence derived from a monoform design, long wheelbase and short front and rear overhang. The steeply raked windshield on the sedan forms a 23.9-degree angle.

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